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Age estimates bear directly on our interpretation of the tempo and mode of morphological and molecular evolution of plants themselves, but also on our interpretation of the evolution of many other groups.

For example, the age of origin of the angiosperms has variously been related to the evolution of other plant lineages (e.g., ferns) (1) and biomes (e.g., tropical forests) (2), as well as to the major insect clades and their feeding habits (3–7), and even to the evolution of fungi (8, 9) and dinosaurs (10).

They generalized this observation to assert that the rate of evolutionary change of any specified protein was approximately constant over time and over different lineages (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)).

The genetic equidistance phenomenon was first noted in 1963 by Emanuel Margoliash, who wrote: "It appears that the number of residue differences between cytochrome c of any two species is mostly conditioned by the time elapsed since the lines of evolution leading to these two species originally diverged.

We present molecular dating analyses for land plants that incorporate 33 fossil calibrations, permit rates of molecular evolution to be uncorrelated across the tree, and take into account uncertainties in phylogenetic relationships and the fossil record.

The notion of the existence of a so-called "molecular clock" was first attributed to Émile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling who, in 1962, noticed that the number of amino acid differences in hemoglobin between different lineages changes roughly linearly with time, as estimated from fossil evidence.

The first step will be to convert a NEXUS file with a DATA or CHARACTERS block into a BEAST XML input file.

This is done using the program BEAUti (which stands for Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Utility).

Nevertheless, we argue that our older estimates should be taken into account in studying the causes and consequences of the angiosperm radiation in relation to other major events, including the diversification of holometabolous insects.

Although the methods used here do help to correct for lineage-specific heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (associated, for example, with evolutionary shifts in life history), we remain concerned that some such effects (e.g., the early radiation of herbaceous clades within angiosperms) may still be biasing our inferences.